the crossbow’s “body” made of wood with a groove to guide the bolt.

Arrow slit

vertical hole in a wall used for shooting bow and crossbow.

Break-back trap

An opening in the ceiling of a passage that allowed for projectiles to be thrown down for vertical defence.


advanced defence structure placed in front of an entrance to protect it and to stop a direct attack by the enemy.


massive fortification built into the surrounding wall of a castle.


collar of mail that protects the head and neck.

Cannon port

a round, square or oval opening in a wall through which a cannon was fired.


case used for carrying arrows.


a projectile for a crossbow.

Parapet walk

walkway protected by a low wall at the top of a defence wall.

Curtain wall

rampart stretching between two towers generally topped by a parapet walk.


mechanism with a gear and crank handle used to tighten the rope.

Thrust (estoc)

blow with the point of a bladed weapon.


handle of a polished bladed weapon.


perpendicular piece of a bladed weapon handle that stops the hand from slipping onto the blade and protects it from the enemy’s blows.

White harness

full suit of armour made of metal.

Staff weapon

general name given to weapons composed of a sharp and pointed tip fitted to the end of a wooden shaft.


cylindrical metal head protection, equipped with openings for eyes, that completely covers the head and face.


gallery built of wood overhanging the ramparts that allowed projectiles to be thrown down.

Vent (of a cannon)

small opening located at the back of a cannon allowing the powder to be ignited.


gallery made of stone overhanging the ramparts that allowed projectiles to be thrown down.


the end of a sword’s handle that serves as a counterweight and stops the weapon from slipping from the hand.


Cross-shaped branches of a bladed weapon’s crossguard.

Sap or Sapping

all the underground demolition works carried out at the base of the walls.


tunic decorated with a coat of arms and worn over the amour or chain mail.

Cut (taille)

blow delivered by the cutting edge of the blade weapon, like in the old expression “cut and thrust”.